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Bulunduğunuz sayfa: Anasayfa arrow Basında Biz arrow 1. Uluslararası Ekomüzeler Konferansındaydık
1. Uluslararası Ekomüzeler Konferansındaydık Yazdır
Çarşamba, 23 Ocak 2013
Image Ekomüzemiz Portekiz'de düzenlenen Dünya'nın ilk Uluslararası Ekomüzeler, Toplum Müzeleri ve Yaşayan Topluluklar (1st International Conference on Ecomuseums , Community Museums and Living Communities) konferansında makale konusu olarak anlatıldı ve resmi yazın olarak yayınlandı. Makale'de köyümüz ile ilgili yaşayış , yerli halkın tutumu, gelen misafirlerin izlenimi, ekomüzemizin fiziki şartları ve daha bir çok konu Dünyanın bir çok yerinden gelen katılımcılara sunuldu.

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Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüzesi
Ekomüzeler: Yerel Halkı Kültürel Çevreye Dâhil Etmenin Bir Yolu
Vacide Betül Kurtuluş,
Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkiye
Stefano Della Torre
Politecnico di Milano, Milan, İtalya
 
Seixal kenti Portekiz’de 19-21 Eylül tarihleri arasında yapılan Birinci Uluslararası Ekomüzeler, Halk Müzeleri ve Yaşayan Toplumlar Konferansı’nda, “Ekomüzeler: Yerel Halkı Kültürel Çevreye Dâhil Etmenin Yolu - Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüzesi” başlıklı makale yayınlandı. Yayınlanan makalede ekomüze projelerinde yerel halkla yapılan işbirliğinin öneminden söz edilmiş, aynı zamanda Türkiye’nin ilk ekomüze girişimi olan Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüzesi bu bağlamda incelendi.
Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüzesi’nin anlatımı amaçlı yapılan sunumda öncelikle bölgenin coğrafi özelliklerinden ve tarihinden kısaca bahsedildi, sonrasında proje yürütücülerinin yerel halkın bilincini ve gelir seviyesini arttırmak, köydeki geleneklerin sürdürülebilirliğini sağlamak, binaları yeniden yaşanabilir hale getirmek ve yetkili otoritelerin ilgisini çekmek için yapılan çalışmalar hakkında bilgi verildi. Proje kapsamında köyde yaşayan yerel halk(doğduğundan beri köyde yaşayanlar) ve yeni halk(köye sonradan taşınanlar) olmak üzere iki ayrı topluluk olduğuna değinildi, bu toplulukların şu anda beraber yaşadığından ve bu noktaya gelinirken yaşanan zorluklardan bahsedildi. Yerel halkın sürecin ilk zamanlarında projeyi ve yeni halkı reddetmesinden ve reddetme sürecinin aşılmasında büyük rolü olan İnanduğçar ailesinin iki topluluğun adaptasyonu için yaptığı çalışmalardan kısaca söz edildi. Proje sürecinden sonra geleneksel yemeklerden, ağızdan, köyün insanlarından, kıyafetlerden, geleneksel aktiviteler, evlerdeki yaşam sunuldu.
Makalede Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüzesi iki bağlamda ele alındı:
1. Kültürel çevre korunması
2. Yerel halkı projeye dâhil etme
Bu durumda Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüze’si yerel halkı proje dahil etme konusunda iyi bir örnek sayılabilecekken, kültürel çevrenin korunma teknikleri ve yöntemi hakkında ne kadar bilgi var ve bu yöntem ve teknikler ne kadar uygulanabiliyor sorusu hala sorgulanması gereken bir konu olduğuna kanaat getirildi.
Sunumdan sonra Hüsamettindere Köyü Ekomüze Projesi dinleyiciler tarafından çok ilginç bulundu, özellikle iki ayrı topluluğun birbirine nasıl adapte olduğu konusunda birçok soru soruldu. İki topluluğun köydeki yaşamı, yerel halkın betonarme evlerde yaşayıp, yeni topluluğun geleneksel(zemin kat yığma, birinci kat ahşap iskelet sistem) evlerde yaşıyor olmaları en ilginç bulunan durumlardandı(Daha önce köye ziyaret etmiş olan Peter Davis özellikle bu konuyu çok ilginç bulduğunu ayrıca belirtti). Gelen diğer sorulardan biri de yeni topluluğun köyde ne kadar yaşadığı konusundaydı.
Birçok dinleyici Türkiye’deki ilk ekomüze örneğini gelip görmekten çok mutlu olacaklarını söylediler.


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Ecomuseums: a way to Involve People with the cultural
landscape. A case study in Turkey: Hüsamettindere Village
Ecomuseum Project
 
V. B. Kurtuluş
Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
S. D. Torre
Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to understand the risks and the opportunities of an ecomuseum project on one settlement and its community through all the existing definitions and the critiques of the notion in the literature along with the selected practice in Turkey. The paper introduces the significance of people involvement and the role of the project in strengthening the identity of the communities and the importance of authenticity in a global world. Afterwards, an investigation of the formation, evolution, and outcomes of the selected case in Turkey is represented; Husamettindere Village Ecomuseum Project. The conclusion critiques the processes and the outcomes of the Husamettindere Project through questions and interferences.

 
 
1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Aim and methodology

Initial point of the study is questioning an ecomuseum idea in Turkey. Tahtakuslar Village in the north Aegean and the Island of Gokceada are the recent examples of ecomuseum initiatives. The studied case in this paper is the first ecomuseum project in the country: Husamettindere Village Ecomuseum Project in Mudurnu, Bolu.

The study intends to find out how the settlement and its community have been influenced by the ecomuseum project, considering the existing definitions and the critiques of the notion in the literature. First of all, desk research was made to see obtainable data about the philosophy, and analysis of further examples was studied to understand the practice and the process of the concept clearly. Afterwards, several interviews were done with Funda Inandugcar- the manager of the “Mudurnu Natural and Cultural Heritage Protection Association”- in order to understand the features

and individuality of Husamettindere Village Ecomuseum Project. Necessary documents for the study such as maps, images, and videos were provided from Emin Inandugcar who is one of the inhabitants and the member of the association. Further interviews were done with the local inhabitants to learn the traditions, the dialect, and their thoughts about the project.

All the intangibles were discovered through experiencing them with the village people. The information of the history is obtained from the books.

After collecting all these information, the basic questions during the analysis of the project were: Is the ecomuseum representing the place and the past correctly? How does the ecomuseum come to ‘truth’ about its history and daily life? How is it utilizing its cultural and natural resources with the involvement of people to achieve these aims?

 

1.2 Role of local community in an ecomuseum project

The ecomuseum philosophy is applied in different settlements in the world to conserve and honor local inhabitants, local distinctiveness, and individuality through community involvement aiming to strengthen the identity of societies.The central proposal of this philosophy is to use cultural and natural capitals sustainably and be sure that local community is responsible for them.

Specifically, what makes an ecomuseum unique is that the authority, who makes the decision of the cultural heritage depicting the uniqueness of the place, is the local society, not an external force. Regional people define the intangible and tangible heritage to be displayed for the representation of the place characteristics. (Davis, 2004)

 

Besides, a vital part of the concept is increasing the knowledge and the education of the community through the thought of social change via collaboration with each other. An accurate society improvement is coming from the community itself since resolutions of the particular troubles of a population depend heavily on the internal relationships and resources. An ecomuseum phenomenon encourages a community to produce a common way of thinking as a proposal for the future. The intention is to maintain a strong sense of a place with the permission of the change. Namely, it is the tool for community growth. Local people are the authority to decide the identification, protection, and development of the heritage resources. The local community should decide the kind of progress in contact with its objective for the future. Population empowerment and regional agreement on decision-making get better with the people involvement at all faces of development. This course of action is guided by the principles of the community involvement, management, and leadership. (Keyes, 1992)

 
 

1.3 Reaching the authenticity

The way a project identify a place is satisfactory with representing both tangible and intangible cultural heritage since these two concept completes each other. While tangibles like squares, buildings, furniture and costumes are important to define a settlement, the intangibles such as how people live in their houses, what their traditions are, how they earn living, briefly how their lifestyle is, makes the image of the project worthwhile and truthful.

 

The dynamic interaction between people and place, the creation of cultural landscape, is particularly significant for ecomuseum. There are risks for museums in imagined, shared identities, the ways that communities “remember” the past. It has always been a critical issue if museums construct and honor “authentic” or “truthful” sense of a place. It is explained by Davis and Huang (2010) that it is possible by carefully selecting the artifacts and the stories reminding visitors of significance moments in local history, or introducing the past through engaging media such as oral histories and by introducing the visitor to key elements of tangible and intangible

cultural landscape.

A serious concern is to be aware of advantages and disadvantages of the preserving methods through the project. Generally, the intention of ecomuseum projects has a risk of altering to a village composed of demonstrations rather than a community living a real life by utilizing the cultural and natural resources. This is an essential issue that could misguide the project because it was verified with the investigations that the demonstrations attract numerous visitors and audiences.

 

After a while the earnings acquired from performances could be appealing and local

people would become actors and actresses. Therefore, an ecomuseum is a project aiming “authenticity” of a cultural landscape through involvement and agreement of local people plus living in today with the local distinctive features of the place: both tangible and intangible cultural heritage.

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2 HÜSAMETTINDERE VILLAGE ECOMUSEUM PROJECT

Husamettindere village is located in western town of the Black Sea; Bolu linked to the province of Mudurnu. It is situated between valleys of Hisar and Kulaklı hills, 20 km away from Mudurnu. (Husamettindere Koyu Ekomuzesi, 2010)

 
2.1 Formation of the ecomuseum

2.1.1 Motives

The major reasons of choosing Husamettindere Village for an ecomuseum project are that not only it housed numerous civilizations butt also it has an important history and cultural heritage as well as traditional lifestyle of the local people. Besides, it has various valued vegetation such as blackberry, cranberry and especially rosehip. Moreover, it is close to two essential cities of Turkey; Ankara and Istanbul

The idea of establishing an ecomuseum in Turkey was initiated by Tunca Bokesoy. Abounded houses in the settlement were put up for sale in Husamettindere Village when he was on a journey in Mudurnu. A group of people including him bought 110 houses with the intention of transferring them to another land, however at the end it is decided to restore the houses in their original settlement. This new community started to introduce and spread the idea of the ecomuseum project. A better perception of the ecomuseum idea was mentioned by Tunca Bokeesoy after a conference on Skansen museums, that Husamettindere Village Ecomuseum Project is not like Skan-sen museums, it is not intended to be a demonstration of life. Twenty-four houses have been purchased until today by the new community. One of the houses have restored with the aim of arranging a cultural museum..

 
 

2.1.2 Objectives

The primary aim is to increase the awareness and the income levels of the inhabitants. The latest owners of the houses are reunited under Natural and Cultural Heritage Protection Association. The Association was established considering the needs of raising knowledge of general public about the importance of the subject and their responsibilities towards cultural and natural herit-age. This association seeks to serve cultural and natural values through providing sustainability of traditions, conserving authentic Anatolian houses, restoring and opening them into use,, find-ing solutions for damaged natural and cultural assets that organization or individual needs, national or international civil initiatives, funding agencies by developing partnerships with Turkey's cultural and natural heritage-related projects, creating public awareness of civil society to produce and attract the attention of relevant authorities for organizing activities. (Husamettindere Köyü Ekomüzesi, 2010) Arranging social activities such as; providing sustainability off forgotten customs and traditions,, revitalization of the middle and folkloric games of the region, agricultural and animal projects, the proper way of consumption, recycling and activities that can be done with local people and visitors; table tennis, sports activities, crafts, presentation of traditional natural products is the first attempt. (Husamettindere Köyü Ekomuzesi, 2010)

Recently, the idea of reorganizing the traditional laundry room is being considered in order to keep the traditional cultural values alive as well as reclamation of unused barn to bring new uses by creating sports fields.

 

2.2 Evolution off the ecomuseum – safeguarding the landscape heritage

Despite the favorable attempts for the development of the project, the only interference that keeps it from being an authorized ecomuseum is the absence of a registered, unique characteristic of thee place. The Natural and Cultural Heritage Protection Association is aware of it and looking for a solution.

 

2.2.1 Tangibles

The abounded houses were interfered in a sensitive way during the restoration process with the purpose of providing the most faithful outcome. However, some of the houses were deeply damaged that it was quite challenging to assume the essential materials and methods. The two different conditions of a house before and after the restoration can be seen in Figures 3 and 4.

The roads of the village are constantly affected from rain or snow since they are made of soil. This subject is a complication among new community that Funda Inandugcar defends that the road needs to be repaired and improved while Tunca Bokesoy says it should remain as it is in terms of conserving the identity of the village.

 

2.2.2 Intangibles

The intangible heritage in Husamettindere Village inccludes oral trraditions, soccial practices, fes-tive eevents, the knnowledge annd skills to prroduce traditional crafts.

Local economyy is based onn agriculture and breeding in the village. Cultivation of blackberry, cranberry, rosehip as well as cow and goat breeding is the most common way of earning mmoney. A speecific knowleedge and deffinitive abilitties are required both for agriculture and breeding. It was complicated for two populations to communicate at the beginning because of thee typi-cal dialect of the village people which is one of the significant intangible heritage. Hacet Holiday is a traditional event that local people comes together for the dinner every 13 th of July. A notable amount of money is gathered for thee organization along one week. A well-known inhabitant named Pakize is considered as a living heritage since she is telling stories about village life with traditional dialect. The rich history of the site, especially during of Independence War is thee cultural heritage that generates thee uniqueness of the place.. Although Mudurnu region has traces of many civilizations since ancient times, there isn’t an obvious information about them. History of Mudurnu needs to be considered in the framework of the history of tithe Anatolia Thrace and Bithynia (Bursa-Izmit-Bolu) region that is in the middle off important commercial and military roads. The first known settlements in Bithynia in 5000BBC were made by Prohitler. Subsequently, the Phrygians, Lydians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines established sovereignty that the region carries the traces of those civilizations. (Husamettindere Koyu Ekomuzesi, 20110) The first Turkmen settlements in the neighborhood of Sakarya, Eskisehir, Bolu and Mudurnu begins after the Oguz invasions towards Anatolia in tithe period off Suleyman Shah in 10788. Sel-juk sovereignty ends with the first crusade and the region re-enters the control of Byzantines

 

Mudurnu have been included to the Ottoman Empire by Samsa Sergeant in 1307. In the Ottoman period, thee lumber and the needle produced had been exported around the world. (Husamettindere Koyu Ekomuzesi, 2010) Through history, with its vibrant economy, the host population, education,, and culture, Mudurnu had made important contributions to the establishment of Turkish Republic and was the castle of Turkish Revolutionaries while there was a rebellion during the Independence War. (Husamettindere Koyu Ekomuzesi, 2010) Thanks to the collaboration with local people all intangibles such as skills, oral history and living people heritage have been recorded. This is a common method that brings a common saving problem since the digital utensil is affected badly from external factors kind of heat, cold, or water. If it (such as an external disk) breaks down, all the information would disappear. Hence, the internet is considered as the least problematic way to store, besides it is the easiest and fast-est way to provide access to the other people. On the other hand, there are still threats for tithe in-formation of disappearing. All these videos and audios are uploaded the video archive off web-site and the facebook page of the ecomuseum.

 

2.3 Capacity building (adaptation of the societies)

Both new population and the village people are intended to be adapted to the project. New group of people are not present in the village permanently, except holiday and weekends. Con-versely, old group of people lives in the village since their birth. Adaptation of these two different groups which have different lifestyles and traditions is a tough course of action. Funda Inandugcar, the head of the Association and owner of one of the houses states that it had been a hard process to integrate the new community with the old community. The village people were overreacting and didn’t want to live with their new neighbors at the beginning, be-cause they knew that the new group was there to make a change. Therefore, new group is con-stantly connecting with the village people and they are trying to adapt them to the idea of the project. It was hard for the new inhabitants coming from big cities to adapt the village lifestyle, either. Emin Inandugcar, one of the new inhabitants, tells that the village people and the new com-munity have socialized and united for the last three years. Recently, some people of the new group support the village girls financially to study and the village people are cooking traditional food for the new group. New community modify their behavior in the village with respect of “the sense of the place”. Funda Inandugcar declares that they adapt themselves to the place including their clothes. The project activists are in contact with the headman of the village and the elders delegation in order to gain the attention of the government. An advertisement video was prepared and spread through internet for the promotion of the project by Emin Inandugcar. As well as, a website of the Husamettindere Ecomuseum was arranged by Funda Inandugcar. Local people, native and foreign tourists as well as of Yildiz Technical University students are arranging various activities for strengthening the adaptation of the people to the project. Interviews with district government were done except it was not effective to increase the interest. The number of the participants and volunteers are quite low as it is a new project and advertising is weak. Even though the process is pretty slow, the number of participants is increasing each passing day. Funda Inandugcar declares that “We are telling about the project everywhere and everyone we thought that interested in the project and we are growing as a chain.” Recently, well-known specialists on ecomuseum concept came from England and Italy to visit the village. Meetings and discussions were done for the improvement of the project that motivate the idea of introducing the project to the tourists after some refinement of the village. (such as restoration of the houses, and addition of ornamentation signs.

 

2.4 Authenticity

It is open to discussion if the new community is an interference or assistance for the area to represent the spirit of the place. Therefore, how close does Husamettindere Ecomuseum Project come to “truth” about its history and daily life? Although many of its inhabitants are village people, now there is a new community having half of the houses in the village. Thinking the daily life of the local people without the new ones, it would be surely different in various ways. Is the ecomuseum representing the place and the past correctly?

 
 
3 CONCLUSIONS

3.1 Formation of the ecomuseum

The projects aims to adapt the old village life with present life without any concern of visitors and Husamettindere hasn’t yet achieved to motivate the supervision by means of the project. Besides, Husamettindere Village Ecomuseum Project needs a further step to be a certificated “museum” and to be distinguished from the other Ecomuseum which defines one unique, registered characteristic of the place.

3.2 Evolution of the ecomuseum

Husamettindere Village Ecomuseum Project can be considered form two different point of view; conservation of landscape and conservation of oral traditions, social practices, festivals, the knowledge and the skills. Firstly, despite the favorable attempts, the conservation of the landscape and the houses were not achieved in a proper way because the required information for the material and technique couldn’t be reached. On the other hand, conservation of intangible heritage contributes to social unity, helps two different communities to feel part of one community by promoting the sense of belonging and responsibility.

3.3 Community building

Community building requires a long process, especially in this project. There are two different group of people with different lifestyle expecting to be adapted within the project. In this sense, it is questionable if the existence of new inhabitants is consistent with the philosophy of ecomuseum. 25 of 65 households belong to new group that comes from big cities, mostly in Istanbul. Although local people are living there all along, new inhabitants are coming only in holidays. They are using the houses a place to rest. It is easy to prejudge the project with just looking to the visible conditions like restored houses. The purchased houses are seemed to be isolated from the village people and the settlement itself. Since the new owners have other houses in big cities generally in Istanbul or Ankara, they do not live in the village all the time. They are coming just for the holidays to rest. Looking to this side of the project for a minute, it is possible to think that new owners have neutered the daily of the village and it doesn’t seem to be an ecomuseum project. Nevertheless, the project can be considered from a further point of view. It has brought opportunities for two groups of people. New community can experience the rural life through its details by living with local people. It is an occasion also for the local people as newcomers sup-port the education of girls, assist a number of technical and technological innovations and in-form local people in the course of conversations and meetings. Both sides have benefits of this condition as well as they are trying to adapt each other.

 

3.4 Authenticity

Making an allowance for all, including the misguiding projects representing the demonstration of life; the question is if an accurate truth is necessary? For an ecomuseum, as well as reflecting today is more essential rather than reflecting past and the place in order to represent the identity of the place. Considering is idea, new community is the truth of today, and with the old community they represent today, past and the place to-gether. In this sense, Husamettindere case offers a new expression of ecomuseum concept by using the cultural heritage as a tool of “social inclusion”. The renovated houses would be individual villas without any relationship with the old community and settlement, unless there was an ecomuseum project. It is questionable if the ecomuseum has been achieved democratization, au-thenticity or sustainable development in all faces. However, it has grounded a connection be-tween the new community, cultural landscape and the old community.

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